13. The Persian Garden (2011)
The Persian Garden consists of a collection of nine gardens, Selected from various regions of Iran, which tangibly represent the diverse forms that this type of designed garden has assumed оуст the centuries and in different climatic conditions. They reflect the flexibility of the Chahar Bagh, or originating principle, of the Persian Garden, which has persisted unchanged over more than two millennia since its first mature expression was found in the garden of Cyrus the Great's Palatial complex, In Pasargadae.
Natural elements combine with manmade components in the Persian Garden to create a unique artistic achievement that reflects the ideals of art, philosophical symbolic and religious concepts, Persian Garden materializes the concept of Eden or Paradise On Earth.The perfect design of the Persian Garden along with its ability respond to extreme climatic conditions, is the original result of an inspired and intelligent application of different fields of knowledge, i.e. technology, Water management and engineering, architecture. botany and agriculture. The notion of the Persian Garden permeates Iranian life and its artistic expressions: references to the garden may be found in literature, poetry, music, calligraphy and carpet design. These, in turn,
expressed by the Specific adaptation of the Chahar Bagh within each component and articulated in the plant/flower beds; the water supply. management and circulation systems from the Source to the garden. including all technological and decorative elements that permit the use of water for functional and aesthetic exigencies; the arrangement of trees and plants within the garden that contribute to its characterization and specific micro-climate; the architectural components, including the buildings but not limited to these, that integrate the use of the terrain and vegetation to create unique man made environments, the association with other forms of art that, in a mutual interchange, have been influenced by the Persian Garden and have, in turn, contributed to certain Visual features and sound effects in the gardens. The Persian Gardens that are inscribed on UNESCO's World Heritage List including:
Justification for Inscription:
Criterion (i): The Persian Garden represents a masterpiece of human creative genius. The design of the Persian Garden, based on the right angle and geometrical proportions. is often divided into four Sections known as Chahar Bagh (Four Gardens). The creation of the persian Garden was made possible due to intelligent and innovative engineering solutions and a sophisticated water-management System, as well as the appropriate choice of flora
and its location in the garden layout. Indeed the Persian Garden has been associated with the idea of earthly paradise, forming a stark contrast to its desert setting.
Criterion (ii): The Persian Garden exhibits an important interchange human values, having been the principal reference for the development of garden design in Western Asia, Arab countries, and even Europe. It is geometry and symmetry of the architecture, together with the water management System. that seems to have influenced design in these gardens. The word Paradise entered European languages from the Persian root word "Pardis", which was the name of a beautiful Garden enclosed behind Walls.
Criterion (iii): The Persian Garden bears exceptional and even unique testimony to the cultural traditions that have evolved in Iran and the Middle East over Some two and a half millennia. Throughout its evolution, the Persian Garden has had a role in Various cultural and Social aspects of society, becoming a central feature in private residences palaces and public buildings, as well as in ensembles associated with benevolent or religious institutions, such as tombs, park layouts, palace
gardens, Meidans, etc.
Criterion (iv): The Persian Garden is an outstanding example of a type of garden design achieved by utilizing natural and human elements and integrating significant achievements of Persian culture into a physical and symbolic-artistic expression in harmony with nature. Indeed, the persian Garden has become a prototype for the geometrically designed garden layout, diffused across the World.
Criterion (vi): The Persian Garden is directly associated with cultural developments of Outstanding Universal Value. These include literary works and poetry for example by Sa'di Hafez and Ferdowsi. The Persian Garden is also the principal source of inspiration for the Persian carpet and textile design, miniature painting, music, architectural ornaments,etc.
In the Avesta, the ancient holy book of the Zoroastrians the Persian Garden and its sacred plants are praised as one of the four natural elements (earth, heavens, water, and plants). The Chahar Bagh is a reflection of the mythical perception of nature, and the cosmic order in the eyes of the ancient Iranian peoples.
The Persian Garden comprises a sufficient number of gardens from across Iran and each garden contains sufficient elements to concur to express Outstanding Universal Value of the series. The component gardens are good condition and Well maintained.
The Persian Garden, through its components, has developed alongside the evolution of the Persian society, while adhering to its early geometric model, the Chahar Bagh. Pasargadae and Bagh-e Abas Abad may be read as fossil landscapes while the other seven gardens retain their active role within their physical and social contexts.